Performs polarization analysis on the circuit or device under test
Keywords
analyzer, optical, unidirectional, bidirectional
Ports
Name  Type 

input  Optical Signal 
Properties
General Properties
Name  Default value  Default unit  Range 

name Defines the name of the element. 
Optical Polarization Analyzer     
annotate Defines whether or not to display annotations on the schematic editor. 
true    [true, false] 
enabled Defines whether or not the element is enabled. 
true    [true, false] 
type Defines the element unique type (read only). 
Optical Polarization Analyzer     
description A brief description of the elements functionality. 
Performs polarization analysis on the circuit or device under test     
prefix Defines the element name prefix. 
POL     
model Defines the element model name. 
     
library Defines the element location or source in the library (custom or design kit). 
     
local path Defines the local path or working folder $LOCAL for the element. 
     
url An optional URL address pointing to the element online help. 
     
icon type Defines the icon or element symbol view option. 
small    [small, medium 
Standard Properties
Name  Default value  Default unit  Range 

signal source Defines the kind of signal output. 
external    [internal, external 
power The average output power. 
0 
dBm* *std. unit is W 
(∞, +∞) 
phase The initial output signal phase. 
0  rad  (∞, +∞) 
delay The time delay to apply to the output signal. 
0  s  [0, +∞) 
input parameter Determines how the frequency range of the analysis is defined. 
center and range    [center and range, start and stop 
center frequency Central frequency of operation. 
193.1 
THz* *std. unit is Hz 
(0, +∞) 
frequency range The frequency range (bandwidth) of the analysis. 
100 
GHz* *std. unit is Hz 
(0, +∞) 
start frequency The lower frequency limit of the analysis. 
193.05 
THz* *std. unit is Hz 
(0, +∞) 
stop frequency The upper frequency limit of the analysis. 
193.15 
THz* *std. unit is Hz 
(0, +∞) 
number of points The number of samples points of the output signal. 
1000    [2, +∞) 
plot kind This option allow users to choose to plot in units of frequency or wavelength. 
frequency    [frequency, wavelength 
power unit Defines the power unit to plot the results. 
dBm    [W, dBm 
sensitivity The minimum detectable signal power level. 
100 
dBm* *std. unit is W 
(∞, +∞) 
angle unit Defines the angle unit to plot the results. 
deg    [rad, deg 
minimum amplitude The minimum detectable amplitude (real and imag) value. 
100e012    [0, +∞) 
minimum angle The minimum detectable angle value. 
0.1 
urad* *std. unit is rad 
[0, +∞) 
resolution Defines the type of filter used to simulate the analyzer resolution bandwidth 
disable    [disable, rectangular function, Gaussian function 
bandwidth Defines the resolution bandwidth. 
10 
GHz* *std. unit is Hz 
[0, +∞) 
limit time range Enables setting the time range( start/stop) of the analysis. 
false    [true, false] 
start time Time instant to start the signal analysis. 
1  s  [0, +∞) 
stop time Time instant to stop the signal analysis. 
1  s  [0, +∞) 
Polarization Properties
Name  Default value  Default unit  Range 

azimuth The azimuth angle (polarization ellipse) of the signal output. 
0.7853981634  rad  [1.5708, 1.5708] 
ellipticity The ellipticity angle (polarization ellipse) of the signal output. 
0  rad  [0.785398, 0.785398] 
Waveguide/Mode 1 Properties
Name  Default value  Default unit  Range 

orthogonal identifier 1 The first identifier used to track an orthogonal mode of an optical waveguide. For most waveguide, two orthogonal identifiers '1' and '2' are available (with the default labels 'TE' and 'TM' respectively). 
1    [1, +∞) 
label 1 The label corresponding to the first orthogonal identifier. 
X     
Waveguide/Mode 2 Properties
Name  Default value  Default unit  Range 

orthogonal identifier 2 The second identifier used to track an orthogonal mode of an optical waveguide. For most waveguide, two orthogonal identifiers '1' and '2' are available (with the default labels 'TE' and 'TM' respectively). 
2    [1, +∞) 
label 2 The label corresponding to the second orthogonal identifier. 
Y     
Enhanced Properties
Name  Default value  Default unit  Range 

data export Defines whether or not to export the calculated sparameter to a file. 
disable    [disable, Jones matrix, s parameters 
filename The name of the file for writing the output data (destination). 
     
differential group delay measurement Defines the differential group delay measurement method. 
disable    [disable, wavelength scanning, interferometric, Jones matrix 
peak excursion The peak excursion defines the rise and fall in amplitude that must take place in order for a peak to be recognized. 
0.03    [0, 1] 
pit excursion The pit excursion value is used to determine whether or not a local minimum in the signal is to be considered a pit. 
0.03    [0, 1] 
fitting coefficient Defines the wavelengthscanning extremacounting method fitting coefficient. 
0.824    [0, 1] 
Numerical Properties
Name  Default value  Default unit  Range 

convert noise bins Defines if noise bins are incorporated into the signal waveform. 
true    [true, false] 
automatic seed Defines whether or not to automatically create an unique seed value for each instance of this element. The seed will be the same for each simulation run. 
true    [true, false] 
seed The value of the seed for the random number generator. A value zero recreates an unique seed for each simulation run. 
1    [0, +∞) 
Simulation Properties
Name  Default value  Default unit  Range 

output signal mode The output signal mode. 
%output signal mode%    [sample, block 
number of output signals The number of simulation runs, or the number of generated signals. 
%number of output signals%    [1, +∞) 
input signal selection Input signal selection option. 
last    [last, index 
input signal index The signal index to analyzed. 
1    [1, +∞) 
include delays Defines whether inserted delays should be included as part of the signal or not. 
false    [true, false] 
Results
Name  Description 

differential group delay  The frequency dependent differential group delay. 
differential group delay/average  The average differential group delay. 
power  The average power. 
DOP  The average degree of polarization. 
stokes/S0  The frequency dependent Stokes parameter S0. 
stokes/S1  The frequency dependent Stokes parameter S1. 
stokes/S2  The frequency dependent Stokes parameter S2. 
stokes/S3  The frequency dependent Stokes parameter S3. 
stokes/S1/normalized  The frequency dependent normalized Stokes parameter S1. 
stokes/S2/normalized  The frequency dependent normalized Stokes parameter S2. 
stokes/S3/normalized  The frequency dependent normalized Stokes parameter S3. 
stokes/S1/normalized/scan  The frequency dependent minimum and maximum values of the normalized Stokes parameter S1. 
stokes/S2/normalized/scan  The frequency dependent minimum and maximum values of the normalized Stokes parameter S2. 
stokes/S3/normalized/scan  The frequency dependent minimum and maximum values of the normalized Stokes parameter S3. 
stokes/S1/normalized/average  The average frequency dependent normalized Stokes parameter S1. 
stokes/S2/normalized/average  The average frequency dependent normalized Stokes parameter S2. 
stokes/S3/normalized/average  The average frequency dependent normalized Stokes parameter S3. 
stokes/S1/normalized/differential group delay/average  The average differential group delay calculated from the normalized Stokes parameter S1. 
stokes/S2/normalized/differential group delay/average  The average differential group delay calculated from the normalized Stokes parameter S2. 
stokes/S3/normalized/differential group delay/average  The average differential group delay calculated from the normalized Stokes parameter S3. 
ellipse/azimuth  The frequency dependent azimuth. 
ellipse/ellipticity  The frequency dependent ellipticity. 
ellipse/azimuth/average  The average value of the azimuth. 
ellipse/ellipticity/average  The average value of the ellipticity. 
====================================
Implementation Details
The Polarization Analyzer generates frequency or wavelength depended Stokes parameters, azimuth and ellipticity. Differential Group Delay (DGD) and Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) are calculated using interferometric, wavelength scanning, and Jones matrix eigenanalysis measurement methods. It can also generate Jones matrix output that supports different file formats.
The state of polarization (SOP) is defined by using the polarization ellipse as shown in Fig. 1, where ω is the ellipticity angle and α is the azimuth angle, a and b are the major and minor axis of the ellipse, respectively. Then the unified Stokes Parameters are defined by Equation. 1.


The Polarization Analyzer has two analysis modes, with internal signal source or external signal source, respectively. The internal signal source is an optical impulse and with the internal signal source, user can choose to output the Jones Matrix as the result.
There are three methods to calculate the DGD, namely "interferometric", "wavelength scanning" and "Jones matrix".
The "interferometric" method finds the maximum delay between two polarizations. The maximum delay value is found by rotating the state of polarization of the input signal and measuring the DGD.
The "wavelength scanning" method uses Equation. 2. to calculate the DGD. This method calculates the peaks of the normalized Stokes parameters and calculates the DGD over the wavelength range [λ_{1, }λ_{2}].
$$ \Delta \tau=\frac{k_{2} \cdot N_{e} \cdot \lambda_{1} \cdot \lambda_{2}}{2 \cdot c \cdot\left(\lambda_{2}\lambda_{1}\right)}[p s] $$ 
Equation. 2. 
The "Jones matrix" method uses the eigenanalysis that is based on the Jones matrix measured by simulating the device under test (DUT) with three known states of polarization and measuring the response state of polarization at the output. The DGD can then be calculated based on the eigenvalues.
Following is the circuit in the example file polarization_analyzer.icp.
Following are the measurement results for the two circuits above with internal and external signal source, respectively.